Also see Annual Bibliographies of  WCS-authored research publications, or search for all WCS research publications in the Publications Database.



Peer-Reviewed Literature


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 1 of 15

Davies, S. W., H. M. Putnam, T. Ainsworth, ..., S. Mangubhai, et al. (2021). "Promoting inclusive metrics of success and impact to dismantle a discriminatory reward system in science." PLoS Biology 19(6), e3001282.

Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist “rewards” by prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals’ meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. We outline pathways for a paradigm shift in scientific values based on multidimensional mentorship and promoting mentee well-being. These actions will require collective efforts supported by academic leaders and administrators to drive essential systemic change.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 2 of 15

Dertien, J. S., C. L. Larson and S. E. Reed (2021). "Recreation effects on wildlife: A review of potential quantitative thresholds." Nature Conservation 44, 51-68.

Outdoor recreation is increasingly recognised for its deleterious effects on wildlife individuals and populations. However, planners and natural resource managers lack robust scientific recommendations for the design of recreation infrastructure and management of recreation activities. We reviewed 38 years of research on the effect of non-consumptive recreation on wildlife to attempt to identify effect thresholds or the point at which recreation begins to exhibit behavioural or physiological change to wildlife. We found that 53 of 330 articles identified a quantitative threshold. The majority of threshold articles focused on bird or mammal species and measured the distance to people or to a trail. Threshold distances varied substantially within and amongst taxonomic groups. Threshold distances for wading and passerine birds were generally less than 100 m, whereas they were greater than 400 m for hawks and eagles. Mammal threshold distances varied widely from 50 m for small rodents to 1,000 m for large ungulates. We did not find a significant difference between threshold distances of different recreation activity groups, likely based in part on low sample size. There were large gaps in scientific literature regarding several recreation variables and taxonomic groups including amphibians, invertebrates and reptiles. Our findings exhibit the need for studies to measure continuous variables of recreation extent and magnitude, not only to detect effects of recreation on wildlife, but also to identify effect thresholds when and where recreation begins or ceases to affect wildlife. Such considerations in studies of recreation ecology could provide robust scientific recommendations for planners and natural resource managers for the design of recreation infrastructure and management of recreation activities.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 3 of 15

Doria, C. R. d. C., E. Agudelo, A. Akama, ..., G. Miranda-Chumacero and et al. (2021). "The silent threat of non-native fish in the Amazon: ANNF database and review." Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9, e646702.

Non-native fish (NNF) can threaten megadiverse aquatic ecosystems throughout the planet, but limited information is available for the Amazon Region. In this study we review NNF data in the Amazonian macroregion using spatiotemporal records on the occurrence and the richness of NNF from a collaborative network of 35 regional experts, establishing the Amazon NNF database (ANNF). The NNF species richness was analyzed by river basin and by country, as well as the policies for each geopolitical division for the Amazon. The analysis included six countries (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia), together comprising more than 80% of the Amazon Region. A total of 1314 NNF occurrence records were gathered. The first record of NNF in this region was in 1939 and there has been a marked increase in the last 20 years (2000–2020), during which 75% of the records were observed. The highest number of localities with NNF occurrence records was observed for Colombia, followed by Brazil and Bolivia. The NNF records include 9 orders, 17 families and 41 species. Most of the NNF species are also used in aquaculture (12 species) and in the aquarium trade (12 species). The most frequent NNF detected were Arapaima gigas, Poecilia reticulata and Oreochromis niloticus. The current data highlight that there are few documented cases on NNF in the Amazon, their negative impacts and management strategies adopted. The occurrence of NNF in the Amazon Region represents a threat to native biodiversity that has been increasing “silently” due to the difficulties of large-scale sampling and low number of NNF species reported when compared to other South American regions. The adoption of effective management measures by decision-makers is urgently needed and their enforcement needed to change this alarming trend and help protect the Amazon’s native fish diversity.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 4 of 15

Fraley, K. M., M. D. Robards, M. C. Rogers, J. Vollenweider, B. Smith, et al. (In Press). "Freshwater input and ocean connectivity affect habitats and trophic ecology of fishes in Arctic coastal lagoons." Polar Biology.

Arctic coastal lagoons are important habitats for unique assemblages of diadromous and marine fishes. Many of these fishes are vital to the food security of rural and indigenous communities. However, human impacts on coastal Arctic habitats, as well as climate change, weaken ecosystem resiliency and threaten the sustainability of fish stocks as a component of local food security. Identifying how habitat characteristics influence fish ecology may allow for predictions of changes in fish abundance and availability in response to these threats, and may help illuminate strategies for responding to negative impacts. Consequently, we endeavored to link habitat characteristics likely to be most-impacted by climate change to fish assemblage trophic metrics in four lagoons within Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska where subsistence fishing commonly occurs. This was done through calculating trophic metrics including mean nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope values from fish muscle tissue samples collected from the study lagoons. Lagoon habitat characteristics were quantified including ocean connectivity, freshwater input, and surface area using satellite imagery. Finally, associations between fish assemblage trophic metrics and habitat characteristics were evaluated using linear regressions, and trophic metrics were compared between lagoons with ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. Model results showed that increased freshwater input resulted in longer duration of lagoon ocean connectivity. Additionally, longer duration of ocean connectivity was associated with an increase in mean δ15N and δ13C across all lagoon fish species. Finally, there were significant species-specific differences in fish trophic metrics among lagoons with varying habitat characteristics. Overall, freshwater input and ocean connectivity of coastal Arctic lagoons appear to be important drivers of fish trophic ecology, and should be carefully monitored in the face of anticipated changes in the region, to conserve important subsistence harvest species.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 5 of 15

Gbewaa, S. B., S. K. Oppong, B. D. Horne, et al. (2021). "Community characteristics of sympatric freshwater turtles from savannah waterbodies in Ghana." Wetlands 41(5), e61.

Despite increasing pressures on freshwater resources worldwide, and the threatened status of most freshwater turtles, there is still limited knowledge of habitat use and niche partitioning in Afrotropical freshwater turtle communities. In this study, we describe habitat associations, community diversity, and temporal patterns of occurrence of freshwater turtle species in the Dahomey Gap ecoregion of Ghana (West Africa). We gathered data from 13 sites in central Ghana and along the Sene Arm of Lake Volta in the Digya National Park (Bono East Region). We employed opportunistic short-term surveys (at seven sites) together with longer-term (six-months duration) standardized evaluations of turtle presence and numbers in different habitats (at six sites). Overall, a total of 210 turtle individuals of four species (Trionyx triunguis, Cyclanorbis senegalensis, Pelomedusa sp. and Pelusios castaneus) were recorded; precise capture sites and habitat type were recorded for 139 individuals, but the 71 individuals observed in marketplaces were not considered in our analyses. At a local scale, we observed three sympatric species in various study sites. In each of these sites, the dominant species was either C. senegalensis or Pelomedusa sp., with the latter species being more abundant in temporary waterbodies and C. senegalensis more numerous in permanent ones. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis suggested that, in permanent waterbodies all species were associated with similar physical habitat variables. In a Canonical Correspondence Analysis, we showed that the density of herbaceous emergent vegetation was more important for P. castaneus than for C. senegalensis. Comparisons of diversity metrics between our study sites and previous studies revealed that turtle community composition was similar across savannah sites.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 6 of 15

Gurney, G. G., S. Mangubhai, M. Fox, et al. (2021). "Equity in environmental governance: Perceived fairness of distributional justice principles in marine co-management." Environmental Science & Policy 124, 23-32.

Concerns with distributional justice invariably arise in environmental governance, especially in the conservation and management of common-pool resources. These initiatives generate an array of costs and benefits that are typically heterogeneously distributed. Distribution of these impacts in a way that is considered fair by local stakeholders is not only a moral imperative, but instrumental to achieving social and ecological success given perceived unfairness fosters conflict and undermines cooperation. However, understandings of local stakeholders’ conceptions of distributional fairness are rare because research often assesses distributional outcomes based on tacit assumptions about what constitutes fairness (e.g. equality). We examine what local stakeholders consider distributional fairness with respect to monetary benefits arising from a collective payment for ecosystem services scheme in a co-managed marine protected area in Fiji. In six villages associated with the co-managed marine protected area, we elicited individuals’ fairness judgements of five distributional justice principles: equality, need, and three forms of proportionality based on customary rights, fisheries opportunity-costs, and involvement in co-management. We examine how fairness judgements are associated with socio-demographic characteristics indicative of key identities, thereby building on socially-aggregated approaches typical of the nascent literature on perceived fairness. We find the rights-based principle was considered the ‘most fair’ and the opportunity-costs principle the ‘least fair’. Our findings challenge prevailing understandings of distributional justice in conservation and commons management, which favour the principles of equality or opportunity-cost. We also find that education was significantly positively related to fairness judgements of all principles, whilst wealth was significantly related to the equality and the opportunity-based principles. These results provide insights into how fairness judgements could be influenced by key elements of current social change in the Global South (e.g. increasing formal education, market engagement and wealth accumulation). Overall, our results suggest that fair environmental governance requires explicit identification of distributional fairness conceptions of those most affected by such initiatives, especially in a context of increasing globalisation of conservation knowledge and practice.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 7 of 15

Kumakamba, C., F. R. Niama, F. Muyembe, ..., G. Bounga, ..., S. H. Olson, K. Cameron, P. Reed, A. Ondzie, ..., D. O. Joly and et al. (2021). "Coronavirus surveillance in wildlife from two Congo basin countries detects RNA of multiple species circulating in bats and rodents." PLoS ONE 16(6), e0236971.

Coronaviruses play an important role as pathogens of humans and animals, and the emergence of epidemics like SARS, MERS and COVID-19 is closely linked to zoonotic transmission events primarily from wild animals. Bats have been found to be an important source of coronaviruses with some of them having the potential to infect humans, with other animals serving as intermediate or alternate hosts or reservoirs. Host diversity may be an important contributor to viral diversity and thus the potential for zoonotic events. To date, limited research has been done in Africa on this topic, in particular in the Congo Basin despite frequent contact between humans and wildlife in this region. We sampled and, using consensus coronavirus PCR-primers, tested 3,561 wild animals for coronavirus RNA. The focus was on bats (38%), rodents (38%), and primates (23%) that posed an elevated risk for contact with people, and we found coronavirus RNA in 121 animals, of which all but two were bats. Depending on the taxonomic family, bats were significantly more likely to be coronavirus RNA-positive when sampled either in the wet (Pteropodidae and Rhinolophidae) or dry season (Hipposideridae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae). The detected RNA sequences correspond to 15 alpha- and 6 betacoronaviruses, with some of them being very similar (>95% nucleotide identities) to known coronaviruses and others being more unique and potentially representing novel viruses. In seven of the bats, we detected RNA most closely related to sequences of the human common cold coronaviruses 229E or NL63 (>80% nucleotide identities). The findings highlight the potential for coronavirus spillover, especially in regions with a high diversity of bats and close human contact, and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 8 of 15

Lausen, C. L., D. W. Nagorsen, R. M. Brigham and J. Hobbs (2022). Bats of British Columbia: Royal British Columbia Museum. Bats live on every continent except Antarctica and in virtually every type of habitat, from desert to forest. With more than 1,400 species worldwide, bats fill important ecological roles around the globe by controlling insect populations, pollinating plants, dispersing seeds and even providing humans with medicines--the saliva of the famous vampire bat can be used to treat strokes! Yet despite their importance to the planet's ecosystems, there remains more misinformation than fact and more fear than respect for these diminutive guardians of the night.

Since 1993, when the first edition of Bats of British Columbia was published, an explosion in field studies of the province's bat fauna has produced a wealth of new knowledge, applying modern tools such as genetic techniques and acoustic bat detectors. This fully updated second edition includes new colour photographs throughout, with new material on acoustic identification. With in-depth information on biology, conservation, ecology and identification of the 18 bat species found in the province, the new Bats of British Columbia will help create an appreciation of this fascinating group of mammals.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 9 of 15

McClanahan, T. R. (2021). "Editorial: Finding sanctuary in the Earth's complexity." Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 31(6), 1231-1232.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 10 of 15

McKenzie, L. J., R. L. Yoshida, J. W. Aini, ..., A. T. Hughes, et al. (2021). "Seagrass ecosystem contributions to people's quality of life in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories." Marine Pollution Bulletin 167, e112307.

Seagrass ecosystems provide critical contributions (goods and perceived benefits or detriments) for the livelihoods and wellbeing of Pacific Islander peoples. Through in-depth examination of the contributions provided by seagrass ecosystems across the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), we find a greater quantity in the Near Oceania (New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands) and western Micronesian (Palau and Northern Marianas) regions; indicating a stronger coupling between human society and seagrass ecosystems. We also find many non-material contributions historically have been overlooked and under-appreciated by decision-makers. Closer cultural connections likely motivate guardianship of seagrass ecosystems by Pacific communities to mitigate local anthropogenic pressures. Regional comparisons also shed light on general and specific aspects of the importance of seagrass ecosystems to Pacific Islanders, which are critical for forming evidence-based policy and management to ensure the long-term resilience of seagrass ecosystems and the contributions they provide.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 11 of 15

McKenzie, L. J., R. L. Yoshida, J. W. Aini, ..., A. T. Hughes, et al. (2021). "Seagrass ecosystems of the Pacific Island Countries and Territories: A global bright spot." Marine Pollution Bulletin 167, e112308.

Seagrass ecosystems exist throughout Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). Despite this area covering nearly 8% of the global ocean, information on seagrass distribution, biogeography, and status remains largely absent from the scientific literature. We confirm 16 seagrass species occur across 17 of the 22 PICTs with the highest number in Melanesia, followed by Micronesia and Polynesia respectively. The greatest diversity of seagrass occurs in Papua New Guinea (13 species), and attenuates eastward across the Pacific to two species in French Polynesia. We conservatively estimate seagrass extent to be 1446.2 km2, with the greatest extent (84%) in Melanesia. We find seagrass condition in 65% of PICTs increasing or displaying no discernible trend since records began. Marine conservation across the region overwhelmingly focuses on coral reefs, with seagrass ecosystems marginalised in conservation legislation and policy. Traditional knowledge is playing a greater role in managing local seagrass resources and these approaches are having greater success than contemporary conservation approaches. In a world where the future of seagrass ecosystems is looking progressively dire, the Pacific Islands appears as a global bright spot, where pressures remain relatively low and seagrass more resilient.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 12 of 15

Rivas, A. E., M. Valitutto, J. M. Lay and J. A. Paré (2021). "Evaluation of passive transfer in nine species of cervidae." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 52(2), 838-842.

The reliability of packed cell volumes (PCV), total solids (TS), blood glucose (BG), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and glutaraldehyde test in determining passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins was investigated in nine species of cervids: axis deer (Axis axis), hog deer (Axis porcinus), sika deer (Cervus nippon), tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), pudu (Pudu puda), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), barasinga deer (Rucervus duvaucelli), and Eld's deer (Rucervus eldii). Individually the parameters evaluated were significant though imperfect predictors of passive transfer status in cervids. Interpreted collectively as a panel along with neonate condition, these tests were clinically helpful in diagnosing failure of passive transfer (FPT). Collectively interpreting test results as a panel along with clinical assessment of the animal is recommended. Some species-specific variations in TS, GGT, and glutaraldehyde test results were identified.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 13 of 15

Twardek, W. M., E. A. Nyboer, D. Tickner, C. M. O'Connor, et al. (Early View). "Mobilizing practitioners to support the Emergency Recovery Plan for freshwater biodiversity." Conservation Science and Practice, e467.

Freshwater biodiversity loss is one of the greatest environmental threats in our changing world. Although declines have been reported extensively in the literature, much less attention has been devoted to solving the freshwater biodiversity crisis relative to other ecosystems. The recently proposed Emergency Recovery Plan for Freshwater Biodiversity (Tickner et al., 2020, BioScience, 70(4), 330-342) outlines an ambitious but necessary set of overarching actions that can help "bend the curve" for freshwater biodiversity declines. This plan is timely given the present opportunity to adjust freshwater biodiversity targets in international biodiversity agreements and to encourage meeting targets of relevant Sustainable Development Goals. Yet, relying solely on a trickle down from such agreements to national and local scales will likely take too long, given the immediate urgency of the situation. Here, we advocate for a broader, concerted effort from all actors to ensure the Emergency Recovery Plan meaningfully influences the actions of practitioners at a local scale. We outline the roles and responsibilities of actors involved with policy, research, professional bodies and societies, advocacy, and industry, as well as practitioners themselves, in achieving this goal. It is our hope that this overview facilitates the real-world actions needed to execute the Emergency Recovery Plan so that we can indeed "bend the curve" for freshwater biodiversity.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 14 of 15

Zec, S. H., M. G. Papich, D. A. Oehler, K. Hils, S. Schmid, K. Huth, D. M. S. Dodge and J. A. Paré (2021). "Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of ponazuril in the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 52(2), 548-554.

Ponazuril, a novel coccidiocidal triazinetrione, has shown promise in addressing apicomplexan diseases in mammals and birds. This study describes the pharmacokinetics of ponazuril in healthy adult Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) following a single oral dose administered at two different dosages. Peafowl (four males and four females) were administered compounded ponazuril at 20 or 40 mg/kg orally in a double crossover design, with a 2-wk washout period. Blood was collected from each bird at 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after administration for plasma concentration of ponazuril using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Fecals were evaluated for coccidial shedding for 3 consecutive d prior to the ponazuril trial, 1 wk after the first dose of ponazuril, and 1 wk after the second dose of the trial. After the first trial, one peafowl administered 20 mg/kg ponazuril was shedding coccidia, but no coccidia were detected by the end of the second trial. Ponazuril reached peak concentrations (Tmax) at 21.38 h + 5.25 and 22.04 h + 7.39, and peak concentration (Cmax) were 11.82 µg/ml + 3.01 and 18.42 µg/ml + 4.13, for 20 and 40 mg/kg doses, respectively. Ponazuril was detected at 120 h with a concentration of 9.48 µg/ml + 2.59 and 12.25 µg/ml + 2.89 and a half-life of 219.4 + 58.7 h and 186.7 + 58.7 h, for and 40 mg/kg doses, respectively. Ponazuril in peafowl was well absorbed orally, plasma concentrations increased with dose, and elimination was slower than current dosages for birds would suggest. No obvious adverse effects were observed at either dosage.


Peer-Reviewed Literature Citations Record 15 of 15

Ziegler, J. A., S. Diamant, S. J. Pierce, R. H. Bennett and J. J. Kiszka (In Press). "Economic value and public perceptions of whale shark tourism in Nosy Be, Madagascar." Tourism in Marine Environments.

Nosy Be in northwestern Madagascar is home to a globally important whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregation and a growing whale shark tourism industry. Whale sharks, however, are not protected in Malagasy waters and are threatened by fisheries bycatch, collisions with vessels, and disturbance from tourism. We used tourist questionnaires (n = 488) to assess the economic value of, and tourist perceptions of, whale shark tourism in Nosy Be from September-December 2019. We also surveyed whale shark tour operators (n = 12) in December 2018 to understand their perceptions of tourism management needs in the region. Results suggest the Nosy Be whale shark tourism industry was worth US$1.5 million for the three-month 2019 whale shark season. ‘Dedicated’ whale shark divers (i.e., those who came specifically to Nosy Be to swim with whale sharks) spent 55% more money overall and six times the amount individually compared to ‘casual’ whale shark divers. Both tourists and operators supported the protection of whale sharks, with the majority (67.4%) of tourists strongly agreeing that they would choose a tourism destination at which whale sharks are protected. Tour operators did note, however, significant management issues (e.g., overcrowding, lack of regulations/training), recommending the need to better regulate whale shark tourism and interactions. This study emphasises the economic rationale for protecting whale sharks in Madagascar to safeguard the emerging marine tourism industry and ensure it is being sustainably managed.


Grey Literature

Grey Literature Citations Record 1 of 6

Acton, G., A. Caginitoba, S. Dulunaqio, S. Jupiter, K. Koto and S. Mangubhai (2021). Nai Vola Dusidusi ni Veituberi kei na Veiqaravi ka Yavutaki ena Veimaliwai ni Veika Bula kei na Vanua era Bula kina ena noda Viti. Suva, Fiji: F. Wildlife Conservation Society.


Grey Literature Citations Record 2 of 6

Ciriyawa, A., R. K. Batibasaga, F. Ma, S. Mangubhai and V. B. Vitukawalu (2021). Nai vola dusidusi ni kena susu na qari e dau qolivi mai. Suva, Fiji: F. Wildlife Conservation Society.


Grey Literature Citations Record 3 of 6

Ciriyawa, A., R. K. Batibasaga, F. Ma and V. B. Vitukawalu (2021). A Guide for Proper Post-Harvest Handling of Fish. Suva, Fiji: F. Wildlife Conservation Society.


Grey Literature Citations Record 4 of 6

WWF, UNEP-WCMC, SGP/ICCA-GSI, LM, TNC, CI, WCS, EP, ILC-S, CM, IUCN (2021). The State of Indigenous Peoples' and Local Communities' Lands and Territories: A Technical Review of the State of Indigenous Peoples' and Local Communities' Lands, their Contributions to Global Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services, the Pressures they Face, and Recommendations for Actions. Gland, Switzerland: WWF.

At a time of unprecedented threats to the global environment, local leadership in governing and managing natural resources is increasingly becoming a critical solution for both people and nature. One key challenge is to identify the most appropriate pathways for enabling the resilience and security of local environmental custodians around the world. In response, a number of conservation organizations and contributors have worked collaboratively over the course of many months to develop a transparent analytical process, in consultation and dialogue with Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC) representatives and experts, to reach a set of technical findings on spatiallyrelevant conservation values of IPLC lands, and related recommendations for organizations that work with IPLCs, or whose actions may affect them. This global analysis on IPLC lands provides a science-based assessment that can be used to guide the development of policies, research and other actions supporting IPLCs and their customs and practices that have, or have the potential for, effective conservation outcomes across the globe. While based on best available data, the results are likely an underestimate of the true extent of IPLC lands. Being focused on conservation, the results also cannot reflect the other diverse values of IPLC lands, such as cultural and spiritual values that are often interrelated and embedded in the social, political, economic and geographic contexts. Despite these limitations, the following key findings provide evidence for moving forward on a shared agenda of respecting, recognizing and building support for those who play a key role in protecting nature, and whose role and well-being is critical to achieve the world’s Sustainable Development Goals.


Grey Literature Citations Record 5 of 6


Wildlife Conservation Society Fiji. (2021). Nai vola dusidusi ni kena maroroi vakavinaka na ika ena gauna e rawati mai kina. Suva, Fiji: F. Wildlife Conservation Society.


Grey Literature Citations Record 6 of 6

Williams, H., T. R. McClanahan, N. A. Muthiga and J. O'Leary (2021). East Africa's Coral Refuge: A Rare Ocean "Cool Spot" in the Pemba Channel. Mombasa, Kenya: Wildlife Conservation Society.

In 2020, scientists highlighted a gem in the waters off the coast of Kenya and Tanzania -- a deep channel of cool water, where threatened species of corals, sharks, and dolphins still thrive despite accelerating climate change. An underwater trove of biodiversity formed by glaciers receding from the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro thousands of years ago, this marine area is a rare refuge for the species that call it home and the coastal communities who have relied on its waters for food and livelihoods for generations.

This is the story of East Africa's Coral Refuge: how it was formed, the people and wildlife whose lives are inextricably tied to it, and a call to protect it amid a warming and developing world.