The Wildlife Conservation Society was originally chartered by New York on April 26, 1895 as the New York Zoological Society with a mandate to advance wildlife conservation, promote the study of zoology, and create a first-class zoological park. Its name was changed to the Wildlife Conservation Society in 1993.
Among the founders of WCS were Andrew H. Green, Henry Fairfield Osborn, and Madison Grant. Theodore Roosevelt and other notable New Yorkers were also involved in the Society's creation.
The Bronx Zoo (formerly known as the New York Zoological Park) was designed along the lines of other cultural icons in New York City, such as the American Museum of Natural History. The city provided the land for the new zoo and some funding for buildings and annual operating costs. WCS raised most of the funds for construction and operations from private donors and selected the scientific and administrative personnel.
To direct the effort to build the zoo, WCS selected naturalist William T. Hornaday, well known as a founder of the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. Hornaday chose the Bronx site for the zoo and selected curators, keepers, and other staff who helped open the facility on November 8, 1899.
The success of the Bronx Zoo fostered stronger ties with the city government. In 1902, WCS took over management of the New York Aquarium, then located at Battery Park in Manhattan, and in 1957 opened a new aquarium at Coney Island, Brooklyn.
During the 1960s and 1970s, WCS took a leadership role in pioneering zoological exhibitions by seeking to recreate natural environments for the animals on display in such exhibitions as the World of Darkness and the World of Birds.
Eventually New York City turned to WCS to renew and manage the three city-run zoos. The redesigned Central Park Zoo opened in 1988, followed by the Queens Zoo in 1992 and the Prospect Park Zoo in 1993.
A Legacy of Protecting Wildlife and Wild Places
Even before the Bronx Zoo opened its gates, WCS was at the forefront of conservation and field research. Zoo Director William T. Hornaday carried out a direct-mail survey of wildlife conditions through the United States and publicized the decline of birds and mammals in the organization's annual reports. In 1897 Hornaday hired field researcher Andrew J. Stone to survey the condition of wildlife in the territory of Alaska. On the basis of these studies, Hornaday led the campaign for new laws to protect the wildlife there and across the United States.
Starting in 1905, Hornaday led a national campaign to reintroduce the almost extinct bison to government-sponsored refuges. The Bronx Zoo sent 15 bison to Wichita Reserve in 1907 and additional bison in later years. The saving of this uniquely American symbol is one of the great success stories in the history of wildlife conservation. Throughout his thirty years as director of the Bronx Zoo, Hornaday continued to campaign for wildlife protection.
William Beebe, the Zoo's first curator of birds, began a program of field research soon after the Bronx Zoo opened. His research on wild pheasants took him to Asia from 1908 to 1911 and resulted in a series of books. Beebe's fieldwork also resulted in the creation of the Society's Department of Tropical Research, which he began directing in 1922 and maintained an active role in until his death in 1962.
Beebe's research in an undersea vessel called the bathysphere took him half a mile under the ocean off Bermuda in 1934 to record for the first time human observations of the bottom of the deep sea. The bathysphere is currently displayed at the New York Aquarium.
After World War II, under the leadership of Fairfield Osborn, one of the foremost conservationists of the era, the organization expanded its programs in field biology and conservation. In 1946 WCS helped found the Jackson Hole Wildlife Park, which became part of the Grand Teton National Park in 1962.
In the late 1950s WCS began a series of wildlife surveys and projects in Kenya, Tanganyika (now Tanzania), Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan, Burma, and the Malay peninsula. In 1959 it sponsored George Schaller's seminal study of mountain gorillas in Congo. Since that expedition, Schaller has gone on to become the world's preeminent field biologist, studying wildlife throughout Africa, Asia, and South America.
The conservation activities of the Bronx Zoo and WCS continued to expand under the leadership of William Conway, who became director of the Zoo in 1962 and President of WCS in 1992. Active as a field biologist in Patagonia, Conway promoted a new vision of zoos as conservation organizations, which cooperated in breeding endangered species. He also designed new types of zoo exhibits aimed at teaching visitors about habitats that support wildlife, and he encouraged the expansion of WCS's field programs.
Today, in addition to running five facilities in New York, WCS is at work on some 500 projects in 60 nations around the world that are intended to help protect both wildlife and the wild places in which they live.